Increased use of derivatives by financial institutions during the past couple of decades, together with a general consolidation of the international banking system has led to a structural reorganisation in the way large banks manage counterparty risk. Specifically, many banks have set up specialist trading units to measure and hedge counterparty credit risk, known as counterparty valuation adjustment (CVA) desks. This box explains the activities of CVA desks and how they may influence financial markets; particularly the market for credit default swaps (CDS).
A commercial bank’s CVA desk centralises the institution’s control of counterparty risks by managing counterparty exposures incurred by other parts of the bank. For example, a CVA desk typically manages the counterparty risk resulting from a derivative transaction with another financial institution (such as entering an interest rate swap agreement).
CVA desks’ hedging of derivatives exposures In a derivative transaction, a bank may incur a loss if its counterparty defaults. Specifically, if the bank’s derivative position has a positive marked-to-market (MTM) value (calculated for the remaining life of the trade) when the counterparty defaults this is the bank’s ‘expected positive exposure’. These potential losses are asymmetric. If the value of a bank’s derivative position increases (ie the bank is likely to be owed money by its counterparty), the potential loss in the event of default of the counterparty will rise. In contrast, if the value of the bank’s derivative position falls such that it is more likely to owe its counterparty when the contract matures then the potential loss on the transaction is zero.
Having aggregated the risks, CVA desks often buy CDS contracts to gain protection against counterparty default. If liquid CDS contracts are not available for a particular counterparty, the desk may enter into an approximate hedge by purchasing credit protection via a CDS index and increase the fee charged to the trading desk to reflect the imperfect nature of the hedge. On occasion, when CDS contracts do not exist, CVA desks may try to short sell securities issued by the counterparty (ie borrow and then sell the securities) but this is rare.
Another way to mitigate counterparty risk is for parties to a derivative trade to exchange collateral when there are changes in the MTM value of the derivative contract. The terms of the collateral agreements between the counterparties (detailed in the credit support annex in the derivative documentation) include details such as frequency of remargining. Since MTM exposure for the bank is greatest if counterparties do not post collateral, CVA desks have reportedly been influential in promoting better risk management via tighter collateral agreements in order to reduce the CVA charge.
CVA activity and the sovereign CDS market
Against the background of heightened investor awareness of sovereign risk, the cost to insure against default on government bonds through CDS has risen recently. According to contacts, increased hedging by CVA desks has been an influential factor behind these moves.
Specifically, CVA desks of banks with large uncollateralised foreign exchange and interest rate swap positions with supranational or sovereign counterparties have reportedly been actively hedging those positions in sovereign CDS markets. For example, for dealers that have agreed to pay euros to counterparties and receive dollars, a depreciation in the euro will result in a MTM profit and hence a counterparty exposure that needs to be managed.
Given the relative illiquidity of sovereign CDS markets a sharp increase in demand from active investors can bid up the cost of sovereign CDS protection. CVA desks have come to account for a large proportion of trading in the sovereign CDS market and so their hedging activity has reportedly been a factor pushing prices away from levels solely reflecting the underlying probability of sovereign default.
Tuesday, June 15, 2010
The Bank of England's most recent Quarterly Bulletin has a nice little box on the impact of dealer CVA (counterparty valuation adjustment) desks influence the spreads on sovereign credit default swaps (CDSs):